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Synth Syst Biotechnol. 2018 Oct 3;3(3):135-149. doi: 10.1016/j.synbio.2018.09.004. eCollection 2018 Sep.

CRISPR-Cas9/Cas12a biotechnology and application in bacteria.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.
2
Department of Biomass Science and Conversion Technology, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551, USA.

Abstract

CRISPR-Cas technologies have greatly reshaped the biology field. In this review, we discuss the CRISPR-Cas with a particular focus on the associated technologies and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cas12a, which have been most widely studied and used. We discuss the biological mechanisms of CRISPR-Cas as immune defense systems, recently-discovered anti-CRISPR-Cas systems, and the emerging Cas variants (such as xCas9 and Cas13) with unique characteristics. Then, we highlight various CRISPR-Cas biotechnologies, including nuclease-dependent genome editing, CRISPR gene regulation (including CRISPR interference/activation), DNA/RNA base editing, and nucleic acid detection. Last, we summarize up-to-date applications of the biotechnologies for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering in various bacterial species.

KEYWORDS:

Base editing; Cas12a (Cpf1); Cas13; Cas9; DNA/RNA detection

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