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Synth Syst Biotechnol. 2018 Oct 3;3(3):135-149. doi: 10.1016/j.synbio.2018.09.004. eCollection 2018 Sep.

CRISPR-Cas9/Cas12a biotechnology and application in bacteria.

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State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.
Department of Biomass Science and Conversion Technology, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551, USA.


CRISPR-Cas technologies have greatly reshaped the biology field. In this review, we discuss the CRISPR-Cas with a particular focus on the associated technologies and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cas12a, which have been most widely studied and used. We discuss the biological mechanisms of CRISPR-Cas as immune defense systems, recently-discovered anti-CRISPR-Cas systems, and the emerging Cas variants (such as xCas9 and Cas13) with unique characteristics. Then, we highlight various CRISPR-Cas biotechnologies, including nuclease-dependent genome editing, CRISPR gene regulation (including CRISPR interference/activation), DNA/RNA base editing, and nucleic acid detection. Last, we summarize up-to-date applications of the biotechnologies for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering in various bacterial species.


Base editing; Cas12a (Cpf1); Cas13; Cas9; DNA/RNA detection

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