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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Dec;25(35):35396-35403. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-3482-0. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Evidence of oxidative stress after continuous exposure to Wi-Fi radiation in rat model.

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Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, 47416-95447, Iran.
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, 47416-95447, Iran.
Department of Clinical Sciences, Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University, Babol, Iran.


Exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is rapidly increasing in everyday environment, consequently conferring potential health effects. Oxidative stress is emerging as a mechanism implicated in pathophysiology and progression of various diseases. To our knowledge, no report has been made on the status of antioxidant redox systems after continuous exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted from a Wi-Fi access point in animal model so far. Therefore, we aimed to continuously subject rats in the experimental group to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from a commercially available Wi-Fi device. Male Wister rats were exposed to 2.45 GHz RF radiation emitted from a Wi-Fi for 24 h/day for 10 consecutive weeks. In order to assess the change in antioxidant redox system of plasma after continuous exposure to a Wi-Fi device, the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), and activity of different enzymatic antioxidants, e.g., superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], and glutathione S-transferase [GST], were measured. In the Wi-Fi exposed group, a significant decrease was detected in total antioxidant capacity of plasma and the activities of several antioxidant enzymes, including CAT, GSH-Px, and SOD (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the GST activity was significantly increased in this group (P < 0.05). However, no significant changes were found in GSH and TBARS levels following exposure to RF radiation. According to the results, oxidative defense system in rats exposed to Wi-Fi signal was significantly affected compared to the control group. Further studies are needed to better understand the possible biological mechanisms of EMR emitted from Wi-Fi device and relevant outcomes.


Antioxidant capacity; Oxidative stress; Wi-Fi device


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