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JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2018 Oct 12. pii: S1936-878X(18)30755-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2018.08.025. [Epub ahead of print]

Serial Assessment of Coronary Flow Reserve by Rubidium-82 Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Mortality in Heart Transplant Recipients.

Author information

1
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
2
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California.
3
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
4
Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
5
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
6
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address: albert.sinusas@yale.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This study aimed to evaluate the long-term prognostic value of serial assessment of coronary flow reserve (CFR) by rubidium Rb 82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography (PET) in heart transplantation (HT) patients.

BACKGROUND:

Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is a major determinant of late mortality in HT recipients. The long-term prognostic value of serial CFR quantification by PET imaging in HT patients is unknown.

METHODS:

A total of 89 patients with history of HT (71% men, 7.0 ± 5.7 years post-HT, age 57 ± 11 years) scheduled for dynamic rest and stress (dipyridamole) 82Rb PET between March 1, 2008 and July 31, 2009 (PET-1) were prospectively enrolled in a single-center study. PET myocardial perfusion studies were reprocessed using U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved software (Corridor 4DM, version 2017) for calculation of CFR. Follow-up PET (PET-2) imaging was performed in 69 patients at 1.9 ± 0.3 years following PET-1. Patients were categorized based on CFR values considering CFR ≤1.5 as low and CFR >1.5 as high CFR.

RESULTS:

Forty deaths occurred during the median follow-up time of 8.6 years. Low CFR at PET-1 was associated with a 2.77-fold increase in all-cause mortality (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34 to 5.74; p = 0.004). CFR decreased over time in patients with follow-up imaging (PET-1: 2.11 ± 0.74 vs. PET-2: 1.81 ± 0.61; p = 0.003). Twenty-five patients were reclassified based on PET-1 and PET-2 (high to low CFR: n = 18, low to high CFR: n = 7). Overall survival was similar in patients reclassified from high to low as patients with low to low CFR, whereas patients reclassified from low to high had similar survival as patients with high to high CFR. In multivariate Cox regression of patients with PET-2, higher baseline CFR (hazard ratio [HR] for a 0.73 unit (one standard deviation) increase: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.82) and reduction in CFR from PET-1 to PET-2 (HR for a 0.79 unit (one standard deviation) decrease: 1.50 to 7.84) were independent predictors of all-cause mortality.

CONCLUSIONS:

Serial assessment of CFR by 82Rb PET independently predicts long-term mortality in HT patients.

KEYWORDS:

cardiac allograft vasculopathy; coronary flow reserve; heart transplantation; myocardial blood flow; positron emission tomography; prognosis

PMID:
30343093
PMCID:
PMC6461525
[Available on 2020-04-12]
DOI:
10.1016/j.jcmg.2018.08.025
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