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Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2018 Jun;19(2):111-121. doi: 10.1007/s11154-018-9473-0.

Black swans - neuroendocrine tumors of rare locations.

Author information

1
Medicover GmbH, Berlin / Hannover, Germany. Christian.koch65@gmail.com.
2
Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany. Christian.koch65@gmail.com.
3
Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Christian.koch65@gmail.com.
4
University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Christian.koch65@gmail.com.
5
ENDOC Center for Endocrine Tumors, Hamburg, Germany.

Abstract

Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are rare and heterogeneous. Therefore, they often remain unrecognized for many years, causing significant disease burden. We here report on four unusual NEN presentations including a metastatic NEN of the kidney, hypoglycemia caused by an insulin-like growth factor-2-oma (previously called non-islet-cell tumor hypoglycemia), multifocal pheochromocytoma in von Hippel Lindau syndrome, and ileal NEN metastatic to the heart. One could say that each one of these tumors were "black swans" and learning about them will increase further awareness of the spectrum of NEN.

KEYWORDS:

Carcinoid; Heart; Hypoglycemia; Insulin-like growth factor 2; Kidney; Neuroendocrine tumor; Pheochromocytoma; von Hippel Lindau

PMID:
30341705
DOI:
10.1007/s11154-018-9473-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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