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Sci Immunol. 2018 Oct 19;3(28). pii: eaat6975. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aat6975.

Cell surface polysaccharides of Bifidobacterium bifidum induce the generation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

Author information

1
Academy of Immunology and Microbiology, Institute for Basic Science, Pohang 37673, Republic of Korea.
2
Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Department of Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673, Republic of Korea.
3
School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea.
4
INRA-Agrocampus Ouest Rennes, UMR 1253 STLO, Rennes, France.
5
Department of Rheumatology, Ajou University School of Medicine,164 Worldcup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 16499, Republic of Korea.
6
Immunology Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, New South Wales 2010, Australia.
7
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Napoli, 80055 Portici, Italy.
8
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Napoli, 80126 Napoli, Italy.
9
Task Force on Microbiome Studies, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
10
Academy of Immunology and Microbiology, Institute for Basic Science, Pohang 37673, Republic of Korea. iimsh@postech.ac.kr.

Abstract

Dysregulation of intestinal microflora is linked to inflammatory disorders associated with compromised immunosuppressive functions of Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells. Although mucosa-associated commensal microbiota has been implicated in Treg generation, molecular identities of the "effector" components controlling this process remain largely unknown. Here, we have defined Bifidobacterium bifidum as a potent inducer of Foxp3+ Treg cells with diverse T cell receptor specificity to dietary antigens, commensal bacteria, and B. bifidum itself. Cell surface β-glucan/galactan (CSGG) polysaccharides of B. bifidum were identified as key components responsible for Treg induction. CSGG efficiently recapitulated the activity of whole bacteria and acted via regulatory dendritic cells through a partially Toll-like receptor 2-mediated mechanism. Treg cells induced by B. bifidum or purified CSGG display stable and robust suppressive capacity toward experimental colitis. By identifying CSGG as a functional component of Treg-inducing bacteria, our studies highlight the immunomodulatory potential of CSGG and CSGG-producing microbes.

PMID:
30341145
DOI:
10.1126/sciimmunol.aat6975

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