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Urol Oncol. 2018 Dec;36(12):532.e1-532.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2018.09.010. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Semen AMACR protein as a novel method for detecting prostate cancer.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
2
UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
3
Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI; UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
4
Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI; UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
5
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI; UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. Electronic address: whuang23@wisc.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Alpha methylacyl A coenzyme racemase (AMACR) has shown to be an excellent immunohistological biomarker for prostate cancer (CaP). Given the connection between prostate and urethra, we hypothesized that semen ejaculate would be an ideal specimen for detection of CaP specific biomarkers, such as AMACR. This study explores the detection of semen AMACR protein in men with and without CaP.

METHODS:

Semen ejaculates from 28 biopsy proven CaP patients prior to radical prostatectomy and 15 age-comparable controls were analyzed. An indirect sandwich ELISA chemiluminescence assay was used to detect semen AMACR, PSA, and Matriptase proteins. Tissue AMACR protein was quantified in 12 corresponding prostatectomy specimens using automated quantitative analysis (AQUA).

RESULTS:

Semen AMACR protein was detected in 23 of 28 (82%) CaP patients and 23 of 24 (96%) CaP patients with significant tumor volume (>0.5 cc or 0.3 g). Among the 5 cancer patients with undetectable semen AMACR, 4 patients had small tumor volumes (<1% or 0.3 g). Semen AMACR protein was also detected in 7 of 15 (47%) control noncancer patients. Using 76 ng/ml as a cutoff value, 20 of 28 (71%) patients and 20 of 24 (83%) patients with significant tumor volume were positive for semen AMACR protein, whereas only 5 of 15 (33%) age-comparable controls were positive. AMACR levels degrade with time.

CONCLUSIONS:

This is the first study to demonstrate that AMACR protein is detectable in semen ejaculate. The higher AMACR levels detected in cancer patients suggests that semen AMACR protein may be useful as a noninvasive test for prostate cancer. Further validation is warranted.

KEYWORDS:

Prostate cancer; Semen AMACR protein

PMID:
30337219
DOI:
10.1016/j.urolonc.2018.09.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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