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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2018 Oct 18:271678X18803372. doi: 10.1177/0271678X18803372. [Epub ahead of print]

Optical imaging and modulation of neurovascular responses.

Author information

1
1 Faculty of Informatics and Engineering, University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, Japan.
2
2 Brain Science Inspired Life Support Research Center, University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, Japan.
3
3 Departments of Radiology and Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Abstract

The cerebral microvasculature consists of pial vascular networks, parenchymal descending arterioles, ascending venules and parenchymal capillaries. This vascular compartmentalization is vital to precisely deliver blood to balance continuously varying neural demands in multiple brain regions. Optical imaging techniques have facilitated the investigation of dynamic spatial and temporal properties of microvascular functions in real time. Their combination with transgenic animal models encoding specific genetic targets have further strengthened the importance of optical methods for neurovascular research by allowing for the modulation and monitoring of neuro vascular function. Image analysis methods with three-dimensional reconstruction are also helping to understand the complexity of microscopic observations. Here, we review the compartmentalized cerebral microvascular responses to global perturbations as well as regional changes in response to neural activity to highlight the differences in vascular action sites. In addition, microvascular responses elicited by optical modulation of different cell-type targets are summarized with emphasis on variable spatiotemporal dynamics of microvascular responses. Finally, long-term changes in microvascular compartmentalization are discussed to help understand potential relationships between CBF disturbances and the development of neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline.

KEYWORDS:

3D image reconstruction; Channelrhodopsin-2; animal models; cerebral blood flow; laser scanning microscopy

PMID:
30334644
DOI:
10.1177/0271678X18803372

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