Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Bipolar Disord. 2018 Nov;20 Suppl 2:4-16. doi: 10.1111/bdi.12700.

Modelling mood disorders: An ACE solution?

Malhi GS1,2,3,4, Irwin L1,2,3,4, Hamilton A1,2,3,4, Morris G1,2,3,4, Boyce P1,5, Mulder R1,6, Porter RJ1,6.

Author information

1
Sophisticated Mood Appraisal & Refinement of Treatment (SMART) Group.
2
Academic Department of Psychiatry, Northern Sydney Local Health District, St Leonards, NSW, Australia.
3
Sydney Medical School Northern, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
4
CADE Clinic, Royal North Shore Hospital, Northern Sydney Local Health District, St Leonards, NSW, Australia.
5
Discipline of Psychiatry, Sydney Medical School, Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
6
Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago - Christchurch, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The treatment of mood disorders remains sub-optimal. A major reason for this is our lack of understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of depression and bipolar disorder. A core problem is the lack of specificity of our current diagnoses. This paper discusses the history of this problem and posits a solution in the form of a more sophisticated model.

METHOD:

The authors review the notable historical works that laid the foundations of mood disorder nosology; discuss the more recent influences that shaped modern diagnoses; and examine the evidence that mood disorders are characterised by multidimensional and longitudinal symptom profiles.

RESULTS:

The ACE model considers mood disorders as a combination of symptoms across three domains: Activity, Cognition, and Emotion; that vary over time. This multidimensional and longitudinal perspective is consistent with the prevalence of complex clinical presentations, such as mixed states, and highlights the importance of recurrence in mood disorders.

CONCLUSIONS:

The ACE model encourages researchers to characterise patients from a number of equally important perspectives and, by doing so, add specificity to the treatment of mood disorders.

KEYWORDS:

bipolar disorder; major depressive disorder; mixed states; modelling; mood disorders

PMID:
30328224
DOI:
10.1111/bdi.12700

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center