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J Sports Sci. 2019 Mar;37(6):656-664. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2018.1522699. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Acute effects of different warm-up protocols on highly skilled golfers' drive performance.

Author information

a School of Education, Childhood, Youth & Sport , The Open University , Milton Keynes , UK.
b The Professional Golfers' Association , The PGA National Training Academy , Sutton Coldfield, West Midlands , UK.
c Institute for Sport and Physical Activity Research , University of Bedfordshire , Bedford , UK.
d School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences , University of Birmingham , Birmingham , UK.


Previous research has highlighted the positive effect that different warm-up protocols have on golf performance (e.g. Sorbie et al., 2016; Tilley & Macfarlane, 2012) with the design of warm-ups and programmes targeting and improving golf performance through the activation and development of specific muscle groups. This study aimed to examine the acute effects of two warm-up protocols on golf drive performance in comparison to a control condition. Using a randomised counterbalanced design over three testing sessions, twenty-three highly skilled golfers completed the control, dynamic and resistance-band warm-up conditions. Following each condition, a GC2 launch monitor was used to record ball velocity and other launch parameters of ten shots hit with the participants' own driver. A repeated-measures ANOVA found significant increases in ball velocity (ηp2 = .217) between the control and both the dynamic and resistance-band warm-up conditions but no difference between these latter two, and a reduction in launch angle between control and dynamic conditions. The use of either a dynamic stretching or resistance-band warm-up can have acute benefits on ball velocity but golfers should liaise with a PGA Professional golf coach to effectively integrate this into their golf driving performance.


Golf swing; dynamic stretching; exercise; golf ball velocity; resistance

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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