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J Sports Sci. 2019 Apr;37(8):864-870. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2018.1531499. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Evening electronic device use and sleep patterns in athletes.

Author information

a School of Human Sciences (Sport Science, Exercise and Health) , The University of Western Australia , Crawley , Australia.
b Western Australian Institute of Sport , High Performance Service Centre , Perth , Australia.
c School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science , Curtin University , Bentley , Australia.
d Centre for Sleep Science, School of Human Sciences , The University of Western Australia , Crawley , Australia.
e Department of Physiology , Australian Institute of Sport , Canberra , Australia.


The present study aimed to investigate pre-sleep behaviours (including evening electronic device use) and sleep quantity in well-trained athletes. Seventy well-trained athletes (44 females, 26 males) aged 21 ± 4 y from a range of team and individual sports were asked to complete an online sleep diary for 7 days. The sleep diary included questions about pre-sleep behaviours (e.g. napping, caffeine intake), electronic device use in the 2 h prior to bedtime (e.g. type of device and duration of use) and sleep (e.g. time in bed, sleep onset latency). On average, athletes spent 8:20 ± 1:21 h in bed each night. Associations between age, time in bed and sleepiness suggested that younger athletes spent more time in bed (B = -0.05, p = 0.001) but felt sleepier (r = -0.32, p < 0.01) than older athletes. On average, athletes mostly used electronic devices for 0-30 min prior to sleep. The use of multiple devices in the evening was associated with more perceived difficulty in falling asleep (B = 0.22, p = 0.03), but no associations existed with other sleep variables. In summary, younger athletes may require later start times or improved sleep quality to resolve excessive sleepiness.


Performance; physiology; recovery; sleep

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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