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Environ Pollut. 2019 Jan;244:84-92. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.10.006. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Haze formation indicator based on observation of critical carbonaceous species in the atmosphere.

Author information

1
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, Beijing Key Laboratory of Indoor Air Quality Evaluation and Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.
2
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, Beijing Key Laboratory of Indoor Air Quality Evaluation and Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Electronic address: duanfk@tsinghua.edu.cn.
3
Kimoto Electric Co. Ltd, Funahashi-Cho, Tennouji-Ku, Osaka, 543-0024, Japan.

Abstract

Organic aerosol (OA) are always the most abundant species in terms of relative proportion to PM2.5 concentration in Beijing, while in previous studies, poor link between carbonaceous particles and their gaseous precursors were established based on field observation results. Through this study, we provided a comprehensive analysis of critical carbonaceous species in the atmosphere. The concentrations, diurnal variations, conversions, and gas-particle partitioning (F-factor) of 8 carbonaceous species, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), in Beijing were analyzed synthetically. Carbonaceous gases (CO, CO2, VOCs, and CH4) and OC/EC ratios exhibited double-peak diurnal patterns with a pronounced midnight peak, especially in winter. High correlation between VOCs and OC during winter nighttime indicated that OC was formed from VOCs precursors via an unknown mechanism at relative humidity greater than 50% and 80%, thereby promoting WSOC formation in PM1 and PM2.5 respectively. The established F-factor method was effective to describe gas-to-particle transformation of carbonaceous species and was a good indicator for haze events since high F-factors corresponded with enhanced PM2.5 level. Moreover, higher F-factors in winter indicated carbonaceous species were more likely to exist as particles in Beijing. These results can help gain a comprehensive understanding of carbon cycle and formation of secondary organic aerosols from gaseous precursors in the atmosphere.

KEYWORDS:

Carbonaceous species; Diurnal variation; Heterogeneous reaction; Relative humidity

PMID:
30326389
DOI:
10.1016/j.envpol.2018.10.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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