Send to

Choose Destination
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 Oct 1;59(12):4978-4985. doi: 10.1167/iovs.18-25137.

The Carnitine Shuttle Pathway is Altered in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Author information

Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States.
Department of Medicine, Emory University Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Institute for Computational Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States.
John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States.



To identify metabolites and metabolic pathways altered in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD).


We performed metabolomics analysis using high-resolution C18 liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry on plasma samples from 100 NVAMD patients and 192 controls. Data for mass/charge ratio ranging from 85 to 850 were captured, and metabolic features were extracted using xMSanalyzer. Nested feature selection was used to identify metabolites that discriminated between NVAMD patients and controls. Pathway analysis was performed with Mummichog 2.0. Hierarchical clustering was used to examine the relationship between the discriminating metabolites and NVAMD patients and controls.


Of the 10,917 metabolic features analyzed, a set of 159 was identified that distinguished NVAMD patients from controls (area under the curve of 0.83). Of these features, 39 were annotated with confidence and included multiple carnitine metabolites. Pathway analysis revealed that the carnitine shuttle pathway was significantly altered in NVAMD patients (P = 0.0001). Tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the molecular identity of five carnitine shuttle pathway acylcarnitine intermediates that were increased in NVAMD patients. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that 51% of the NVAMD patients had similar metabolic profiles, whereas the remaining 49% displayed greater variability in their metabolic profiles.


Multiple long-chain acylcarnitines that are part of the carnitine shuttle pathway were significantly increased in NVAMD patients compared to controls, suggesting that fatty acid metabolism may be involved in NVAMD pathophysiology. Cluster analysis suggested that clinically indistinguishable NVAMD patients can be separated into distinct subgroups based on metabolic profiles.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center