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J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2018 Oct-Dec;36(4):381-385. doi: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_200_16.

Salivary lead concentration in dental caries among normal and children with cerebral palsy.

Author information

1
Department of Pedodontics, Unnati Hospital, Vijayapur, Karnataka, India.
2
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, P.M.N.M Dental College and Hospital, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India.
3
Department of ENT, Al Ameen Medical College and Hospital, Vijayapur, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Introduction:

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurological disability the exact cause of which is not known. Exposure to toxic elements, environmental pollutants, and various teratogens such as lead, either prenatal or postnatal, can be a risk factor for this neurologic disability. CP children have poor neuromuscular coordination, exposing them to increased risk of oral diseases such as drooling of saliva, periodontal diseases, dental caries, and malocclusion. There are less studies comparing lead concentration in CP children, as it can be one of the contributing factors to dental caries.

Aims and Objectives:

The present study was to estimate and compare the salivary lead level in normal and neurologically disabled children and to correlate salivary lead level with dental caries in both normal and neurologically disabled children.

Materials and Methods:

A study on 45 children reporting to CP rehabilitation center and 41 normal children taken from the Outpatient Department of the Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry. P.M.N.M. Dental College and Hospital, Bagalkot, Karnataka. All children were between the age group of 5-12 years. In all individuals, a thorough medical history and dental examination were done. The age, state of dentition, and the level of caries in all individuals were determined by the same examiner, and salivary lead concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. All children were divided into four groups depending on the presence or absence of dental caries. Group 1 consisted of 20 normal children with dental caries, Group 2 consisted of 21 normal children without dental caries, Group 3 consisted of 25 CP children with dental caries, and Group 4 consisted of 20 CP children without dental caries.

Results:

Were recorded tabulated and statistically analyzed. CP children had high decayed, missing, and filled teeth/def scores, dental caries, and salivary lead concentration as compared to normal children. Statistically significant correlation was obtained between the dental caries and saliva lead concentration. The lead concentration was directly proportional to the carious status.

Conclusion:

CP children are more prone to dental caries and increased salivary lead concentration which could be a cause as well as the effect of CP.

KEYWORDS:

Atomic absorption spectrophotometer; and filled teeth score; cerebral palsy; decayed; missing; saliva lead concentration

PMID:
30324929
DOI:
10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_200_16
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