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Gynecol Endocrinol. 2018 Oct 16:1-6. doi: 10.1080/09513590.2018.1501017. [Epub ahead of print]

Management of contraceptives and menstrual complaints in patients with Down syndrome.

Author information

1
a Post Graduate Program in Gynecology and Obstetrics, Universidade Federal do ParanĂ¡ , Curitiba , Brazil.
2
b Medicine Department , Positivo University , Curitiba , Brazil.

Abstract

Enhanced health care for patients with Down syndrome (DS) results in improved overall quality of life and longer life expectancy. The main gynecologic complaints of patients with DS and their caregivers relate to menstrual cycles, hygiene and reproductive issues. Certain aspects, such as age of menarche, menstrual cycles, internal genitalia, and hormone profile are similar to those observed in the general population. However, individuals with DS may have a higher incidence of other disorders related to menstruation, such as hypothyroidism, epilepsy and use of anticonvulsants. Contraceptive measures for individuals with DS can be used for both contraception and control of menstrual symptoms. The physician must be to make an individualized recommendation aimed at offering the most efficient and least invasive method with the fewest side effects. Among medical options are oral contraceptives, quarterly injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate, oral progesterone, a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, transdermal patch and vaginal rings. Surgical methods, including hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, or tubal ligation, are rarely considered because they raise ethical and legal questions. This article reviews the literature and basic guidelines to assist physicians who attend adolescent girls and women with DS to provide guidance on the appropriate management of the main gynecologic complaints of this population.

KEYWORDS:

Down syndrome; contraception; gynecology

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