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Nutrients. 2018 Oct 13;10(10). pii: E1498. doi: 10.3390/nu10101498.

A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D.

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School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Australia.
School of Management, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Australia.
School of Veterinary Science, Murdoch University, Perth 6150, Australia.
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Australia.
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Australia.


When commonly consumed mushroom species are exposed to a source of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, such as sunlight or a UV lamp, they can generate nutritionally relevant amounts of vitamin D. The most common form of vitamin D in mushrooms is D₂, with lesser amounts of vitamins D₃ and D₄, while vitamin D₃ is the most common form in animal foods. Although the levels of vitamin D₂ in UV-exposed mushrooms may decrease with storage and cooking, if they are consumed before the 'best-before' date, vitamin D₂ level is likely to remain above 10 μg/100 g fresh weight, which is higher than the level in most vitamin D-containing foods and similar to the daily requirement of vitamin D recommended internationally. Worldwide mushroom consumption has increased markedly in the past four decades, and mushrooms have the potential to be the only non-animal, unfortified food source of vitamin D that can provide a substantial amount of vitamin D₂ in a single serve. This review examines the current information on the role of UV radiation in enhancing the concentration of vitamin D₂ in mushrooms, the effects of storage and cooking on vitamin D₂ content, and the bioavailability of vitamin D₂ from mushrooms.


Agaricus bisporus; Lentinula edodes; Pleurotus ostreatus; UV radiation; button mushroom; mushroom; oyster mushroom; shiitake mushroom; vitamin D

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