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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Oct 12;15(10). pii: E2241. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102241.

The Role of Vitamin D in Fertility and during Pregnancy and Lactation: A Review of Clinical Data.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria. stefan.pilz@chello.at.
2
Clinic for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart Center North Rhine-Westfalia, Ruhr University Bochum, Georgstraße 11, D-32545 Bad Oeynhausen, Germany. azittermann@hdz-nrw.de.
3
Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital of the Saarland, Building 57, D-66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany. rima.obeid@uks.eu.
4
Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover, Am Kleinen Felde 30, D-30167 Hannover, Germany. hahn@nutrition.uni-hannover.de.
5
Department of Biochemistry, Radioimmunology and Experimental Medicine, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Aleja Dzieci Polskich 20 Str, 04730 Warsaw, Poland. pludowski@yahoo.com.
6
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria. christian.trummer@medunigraz.at.
7
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria. elisabeth.lerchbaum@medunigraz.at.
8
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Zaragoza, Faculty of Medicine, Lozano-Blesa University Hospital, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain. faustino.perez@unizar.es.
9
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital, 55535 Thessaloniki, Greece. karraspiros@yahoo.gr.
10
Medical Clinic V (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Rheumatology, Endocrinology, Diabetology), Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor- Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim, Germany. winfried.maerz@synlab.com.
11
Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria. winfried.maerz@synlab.com.
12
SYNLAB Academy, SYNLAB Holding Deutschland GmbH, P5, 7, D-68161 Mannheim and Augsburg, Germany. winfried.maerz@synlab.com.

Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency is common and there exists a huge gap between recommended dietary vitamin D intakes and the poor vitamin D supply in the general population. While vitamin D is important for musculoskeletal health, there are accumulating data suggesting that vitamin D may also be important for fertility, pregnancy outcomes and lactation. Significant changes in vitamin D metabolism during pregnancy such as increased production of the "active vitamin D hormone" calcitriol support the important role of vitamin D in this setting. Observational studies show that vitamin D deficiency is a risk marker for reduced fertility and various adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with a low vitamin D content of breast milk. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) document that physiological vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy is safe and improves vitamin D and calcium status, thereby protecting skeletal health. Although certain RCTs and/or meta-analyses reported some other beneficial effects, it is still not clear whether vitamin D supplementation improves fertility or decreases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight, pre-eclampsia and neonatal mortality, or reduces wheeze/asthma in the infants. Nevertheless, vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women is frequently required to achieve a sufficient vitamin D status as recommended by nutritional vitamin D guidelines. In this review, we provide an overview of systematic reviews, meta-analyses and large trials reporting clinical data on the role of vitamin D for fertility, pregnancy and lactation.

KEYWORDS:

25-hydroxyvitamin D; DBP; autism; brain; breast milk; gestational diabetes; pre-eclampsia; vitamin D; vitamin D binding protein

PMID:
30322097
PMCID:
PMC6210343
DOI:
10.3390/ijerph15102241
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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