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Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2018 Dec;31(6):542-552. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000503.

Paramyxovirus infections in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

Author information

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control, and Employee Health, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

In hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, paramyxovirus infections are major viral respiratory tract infections that, if they progress to lower respiratory tract infections, are associated with reduced survival rates in this population. There are important knowledge gaps regarding treatment decisions for HCT recipients with these infections and in the identification of risk factors that predict infection severity. Here, we review recent data on paramyxovirus infections in HCT recipients focusing on risk factors, new diagnostic and prognostic tools, and management including new drugs and vaccines under development.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Multiplexed molecular assays associated with immunodeficiency scoring index for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have improved our understanding of the epidemiology of RSV and other paramyxovirus infections and the risk factors for worse outcomes. Novel antiviral drugs, monoclonal antibodies, and vaccines are under evaluation with mixed preliminary results.

SUMMARY:

Advances in our knowledge of paramyxovirus infections in HCT recipients in the last two decades contributed to better strategies for management and prevention of these infections. A widespread understanding of how to stratify HCT recipients with paramyxovirus infections who would benefit most from antiviral therapy remains to be ascertained. Vaccines and new drugs under development may mitigate the burden of paramyxovirus infections.

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