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Avicenna J Med. 2018 Oct-Dec;8(4):125-132. doi: 10.4103/ajm.AJM_2_18.

Patterns of pituitary dysfunction three months or more after traumatic brain injury.

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Department of Medicine, Basrah College of Medicine, Faiha Specialized Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism Center, Basrah, Iraq.



Chronic posttraumatic brain injury (TBI) pituitary dysfunction is not a newly discovered subject, it has been reported more frequently, probably due to increasing chances of exposure to its causes, mainly the road traffic accidents, sport-related injuries, falls, and injuries during wars. This study aims to estimate the frequency of pituitary dysfunction 3 months or more after head trauma and the patterns of hormonal deficiencies.


A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2016 and August 2017. Participants were patients having a history of moderate-to-severe TBI at least 3 months before enrolment. Pituitary function test was done for all patients to determine the frequency of pituitary dysfunction, the number of axes deficiencies, and which hormone is mostly affected. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 was used for univariate analysis, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


Out of the 28 patients involved in this study, 17 (61%) had pituitary dysfunction, while 11 (39%) had not. Single hormonal defect was the most prevalent abnormality in 12 (43%), and the most affected hormone was the growth hormone (GH) in 14 patients (50%), followed by gonadal axis, thyroid stimulating hormone, and finally adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 6 (21%), 3 (11%), and 1 (4%), respectively.


TBI pituitary dysfunction is more prevalent than was predicted in the population studied, single hormonal defect was found to be the most prevalent abnormality, being the GH is the most affected axis, and the ACTH seems to be the least.


Growth hormone deficiency; head trauma; hypopituitarism; traumatic brain injury

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