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Biomed Opt Express. 2018 Sep 7;9(10):4689-4701. doi: 10.1364/BOE.9.004689. eCollection 2018 Oct 1.

High-speed widefield photoacoustic microscopy of small-animal hemodynamics.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.
Center for Perioperative Organ Protection (CPOP), Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
Caltech Optical Imaging Laboratory, Andrew and Peggy Cherng Department of Medical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Tx 77843, USA.


Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) has become a popular tool in small-animal hemodynamic studies. However, previous OR-PAM techniques variously lacked a high imaging speed and/or a large field of view, impeding the study of highly dynamic physiologic and pathophysiologic processes over a large region of interest. Here we report a high-speed OR-PAM system with an ultra-wide field of view, enabled by an innovative water-immersible hexagon-mirror scanner. By driving the hexagon-mirror scanner with a high-precision DC motor, the new OR-PAM has achieved a cross-sectional frame rate of 900 Hz over a 12-mm scanning range, which is 3900 times faster than our previous motor-scanner-based system and 10 times faster than the MEMS-scanner-based system. Using this hexagon-scanner-based OR-PAM system, we have imaged epinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in the whole mouse ear and vascular reperfusion after ischemic stroke in the mouse cortex in vivo, with a high spatial resolution and high volumetric imaging speed. We expect that the hexagon-scanner-based OR-PAM system will become a powerful tool for small animal imaging where the hemodynamic responses over a large field of view are of interest.

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