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Curr Drug Deliv. 2019;16(2):123-135. doi: 10.2174/1567201815666181011121750.

Formulation and Evaluation of Neuroactive Drug Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticle for Nose to Brain Delivery: In-vitro Characterization and In-vivo Behavior Study.

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Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard (Deemed University), M.B. Road, New Delhi- 110062, India.
Department of Pharmaceutics, Glocal School of Pharmacy, Glocal University, Saharanpur 247121, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia.



The present work was designed to explore the efficacy of neuroactive drug (risperidone) loaded chitosan lipid nanoparticle (RIS-CH-LNPs) to enhance the bioactivity in schizophrenia via the nasal route.


The three-factor and three-level formulation by design approach was used for optimization and their effects were observed on (Y1) size in nm, (Y2) % drug loading, and (Y3) % drug release. The optimized formulation RIS-CH-LNPopt was further evaluated for its surface morphology, ex-vivo permeation study, in-vivo behavior study, and stability study. The developed RIS-CH-LNPs showed nanometric size range with high drug loading and prolonged drug release.


The optimized formulation (RIS-CH-LNPopt) has shown the particle size (132.7 nm), drug loading (7.6 %), drug release (80.7 %) and further ex-vivo permeation study showed 2.32 fold enhancement over RIS-SUS(suspension). In-vivo behavior studies showed that RIS-CH-LNPopt is able to show significant greater bioefficacy as compared to RIS-SUS [intranasal (i.n), intravenous (i.v)]. The pharmacokinetic and brain/plasma ratio of developed chitosan nanoparticle was higher at all time-points as compared to RIS-SUS either given by intranasal or intravenous route that proves the direct nose to brain transport pathway of the drug via nasal administration. The developed chitosan nanoparticle increases nose to brain drug delivery as compared to the dispersion of equivalent dose.


The findings of this study substantiate the existence of a direct nose-to-brain delivery route for RIS-CH-LNPs.


Risperidone; behavior study; catalepsy; intranasal; locomotor; nanoparticle.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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