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Prev Med. 2019 Jan;118:73-80. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.10.007. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Association between lifestyle risk factors and incident hypertension among middle-aged and older Australians.

Author information

1
Prevention Research Collaboration, Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: thanh-binh.nguyen-duy@sydney.edu.au.
2
Prevention Research Collaboration, Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Abstract

This study aimed to examine the association between individual and combined lifestyle risk factors and the incidence of hypertension 1) in middle-aged and older Australians, and 2) to compare findings in men and women. A sample of 32,393 adults aged ≥45 years from New South Wales completed baseline (2006-2008) and follow-up (2010) questionnaires. Self-reported incident hypertension was defined as not having physician-diagnosed hypertension nor taking antihypertensive medications at baseline and reporting a diagnosis/treatment of hypertension at follow-up. High-risk categories for six lifestyle risk factors were defined as: a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, physical activity levels <150 min/week, consuming ≥14 alcohol drinks/week, being a current smoker, consuming <2 fruit and/or <3 vegetable serves/day, and being at high risk of psychological distress (Kessler-10 score ≥ 22). The association between baseline risk factors and incident hypertension was examined using logistic regression models, adjusted for socio-demographic, medical and lifestyle risk factors. After 2.7 (SD: 0.9) years of follow-up, 17.1% developed hypertension. Compared to low-risk categories, high BMI (AOR [95% CI]: 1.99 [1.85, 2.13]), high alcohol intake (1.58 [1.44, 1.73]), low physical activity levels (1.17 [1.07, 1.27]) and being a current smoker (1.15 [1.0, 1.31]) were associated with a higher incidence of hypertension in the overall sample, with similar associations in men and women. The number of high-risk lifestyle factors was positively associated with higher odds of developing hypertension in the overall sample, men and women; with a stronger association in middle-aged men. Adopting a low-risk lifestyle may prevent hypertension among middle-aged and older adults.

KEYWORDS:

Blood pressure; Hypertension; Lifestyle; Prospective studies; Risk factors

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