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BMC Ophthalmol. 2018 Oct 11;18(1):266. doi: 10.1186/s12886-018-0933-9.

A novel PAX3 mutation in a Korean patient with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 and unilateral branch retinal vein and artery occlusion: a case report.

Author information

1
Department of Ophthalmology, The Institute of Vision Research, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 211, Eonjuro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06273, Korea.
2
Department of Ophthalmology, The Institute of Vision Research, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 211, Eonjuro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06273, Korea. sklee219@yuhs.ac.
3
Department of Ophthalmology, The Institute of Vision Research, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1, Yonseiro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Korea. sklee219@yuhs.ac.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a very rare genetic disorder affecting the neural crest cells. Coexistence of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) in the same eye is also a rare finding. Here we report a case of WS type 1 that was confirmed by a novel mutation with the finding of unilateral BRVO and BRAO.

CASE PRESENTATION:

A 36-year-old, white-haired Korean man presented with a complaint of loss of vision in the inferior visual field of his right eye and hearing loss. He had telecanthus with a medial eyebrow and a hypochromic left iris. Funduscopy showed an ischemic change at the posterior pole in the right eye with sparing of the foveal center as well as retinal hemorrhages and white patches along the superotemporal arcade. Fundus angiography revealed the presence of both BRVO and BRAO, and optical coherence tomography showed thickening and opacification of the retinal layers corresponding to the ischemic area. A blood workup revealed hyperhomocysteinemia and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies; both are suggestive as the cause of the BRVO and BRAO. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis confirmed a novel PAX3 mutation at 2q35 (c.91-95 ACTCC deletion causing a frameshift). These findings confirmed a diagnosis of WS type 1.

CONCLUSIONS:

WS is a heterogeneous inherited disorder of the neural crest cells that causes pigment abnormalities and sensorineural hearing loss. This is the first report of unilateral BRVO and BRAO in a patient with WS. Furthermore, the PAX3 mutation identified in this patient has not been reported previously.

KEYWORDS:

Branch retinal artery occlusion; Branch retinal vein occlusion; Hyperhomocysteinemia; PAX3 gene mutation; Waardenburg syndrome

PMID:
30314436
PMCID:
PMC6186106
DOI:
10.1186/s12886-018-0933-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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