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ASAIO J. 2018 Oct 9. doi: 10.1097/MAT.0000000000000887. [Epub ahead of print]

The Impact of Infection and Elevated INR in LVAD-Associated Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Case-Crossover Study.

Author information

1
From the Departments of Neurology, Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
2
Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
3
Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Abstract

Despite the common occurrence left ventricular assist device (LVAD)-associated intracranial hemorrhage, the etiology of intracranial hemorrhage is uncertain. We aim to explore the impact of infection and international normalized ratio (INR) on intracranial hemorrhage in a case-crossover study. We reviewed consecutive patients with intracranial hemorrhage in a prospectively collected data of LVAD patients from a single, tertiary center from October 2004 to December 2016. Information on infection and INR values were collected at the time and 1 month before the intracranial hemorrhage as controls. Of 477 persons with LVAD, 47 (10%) developed intracranial hemorrhage (27 intracerebral, 14 subarachnoid, and six subdural hemorrhages). Of 47 (median age 58; 39 males), 27 (54%) persons had active infection at the time of intracranial hemorrhage; seven (21%) of 44 LVADs had infection at 1 month before intracranial hemorrhage. The relative risk of intracranial hemorrhage because of active infection compared with the infections at 1 month was 2.3 (95% CI: 1.5-3.4; p < 0.0001). The mean INRs at the time of intracranial hemorrhage were also significantly higher at the time of hemorrhage compared with those at 1 month (2.6 ± 1.9 vs. 1.8 ± 0.8; p = 0.01). Of 13 persons with cerebral angiogram (seven subarachnoid and six intracerebral hemorrhages), four (57%) infectious intracranial aneurysms were identified only in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who also had bloodstream infections. Active infection and elevated INR were associated with LVAD-associated intracranial hemorrhage. The occurrence of both bloodstream infection and subarachnoid hemorrhage may indicate the presence of infectious intracranial aneurysm in LVAD.

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