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J Community Psychol. 2018 Nov;46(8):1075-1091. doi: 10.1002/jcop.22092. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Posttraumatic stress disorder in the short and medium term following the World Trade Center attack among Asian Americans.

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Fordham University.
Columbia University.
New York University.


This study investigated patterns of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and their predictors among 2,431 Asian American and 31,455 non-Hispanic White World Trade Center (WTC) Registry participants 2-3 years and 5-6 years after the WTC attack. Participants were divided into four PTSD pattern groups: resilient, remitted, delayed onset, and chronic. Asians had a lower proportion in the resilient group (76.5% vs. 79.8%), a higher proportion in the chronic (8.6% vs. 7.4%) and remitted (5.9% vs. 3.4%) groups, and a similar proportion in the delayed onset group (about 9%) compared to Whites. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, disaster exposure, immigrant status, lower income, pre-attack depression/anxiety, and lower respiratory symptoms were associated with increased odds of chronic and delayed onset PTSD (vs. resilience) among both races. Education and employment were protective against chronic and delayed onset PTSD among Whites only. These results can inform targeted outreach efforts to enhance prevention and treatment for Asians affected by future events.


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