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J Med Food. 2018 Oct 11. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2018.0007. [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of α-Lipoic Acid, Carnosine, and Thiamine Supplementation in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

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1 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences; Medical Department; University of Ioannina , Ioannina, Greece .
2 Hellenic Agricultural Organization, Fisheries Research Institute , Kavala, Greece .
3 Department of Haematology, Sismanogleio Hospital , Athens, Greece .
4 Department of Nursing, Epirus Institute of Technology (T.E.I. of Epirus) , Ioannina, Greece .
5 Department of Urology, University Hospital of Ioannina , Ioannina, Greece .
6 Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical Department; University of Ioannina , Ioannina, Greece .
7 Medical Laboratories, Alexander Technological Institute of Thessaloniki , Thessaloniki, Greece .


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is evolving to an epidemic of the modern world. T2DM is associated with a number of pathological complications, including cardiovascular disease that is mostly promoted by the increased oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of an individualized oral supplementation with α-lipoic acid (ALA), carnosine, and thiamine. For that purpose, 82 obese type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups, and were either supplemented daily with 7 mg ALA/kg body weight, 6 mg carnosine/kg body weight, and 1 mg thiamine/kg body weight or placebo for 8 weeks. An array of biochemical tests including the estimation of oxidative stress and platelet aggregation were performed at baseline and at follow-up. Moreover, the antiplatelet activity of each of the supplement's components was determined ex vivo at human and washed rabbit platelets. Glucose and HbA1c levels were significantly reduced after supplementation (135.7 ± 19.5 mg/dL vs. 126.5 ± 16.8 mg/dL and 8.3% ± 0.3% vs. 6.03% ± 0.58%, respectively, P < .05); however, insulin was significantly increased (3.6 ± 0.7 μIU/mL vs. 6.8 ± 0.2 μIU/mL, P < .05). The patients treated with the supplement recorded higher follow-up values for HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, and a significant drop in serum hydroperoxide level. Only ALA inhibited platelets aggregation ex vivo through ADP, platelet activating factor, arachidonic acid, epinephrine, collagen, and thrombin pathways. Daily supplementation with an individualized ALA, carnosine, and thiamine supplement effectively reduced glucose concentration in type 2 diabetic patients, probably by increasing insulin production from the pancreas. In addition to that, the reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of platelet aggregation could potentially provide greater cardiovascular protection. Further studies are needed to fine-tune the supplementation dose-response effects in T2DM patients.


glucose; glycated Hemoglobin A; insulin; obesity; oxidative stress; platelet aggregation


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