Format

Send to

Choose Destination
NMR Biomed. 2018 Dec;31(12):e4009. doi: 10.1002/nbm.4009. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

3.0 T relaxation time measurements of human lymph nodes in adults with and without lymphatic insufficiency: Implications for magnetic resonance lymphatic imaging.

Author information

1
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN, USA.
2
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
3
Vanderbilt Dayani Center for Health and Wellness, Nashville, TN, USA.
4
Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
5
Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
6
Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Abstract

The purpose of this work was to quantify 3.0 T (i) T1 and T2 relaxation times of in vivo human lymph nodes (LNs) and (ii) LN relaxometry differences between healthy LNs and LNs from patients with lymphatic insufficiency secondary to breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema (BCRL). MR relaxometry was performed over bilateral axillary regions at 3.0 T in healthy female controls (105 LNs from 20 participants) and patients with BCRL (108 LNs from 20 participants). Quantitative T1 maps were calculated using a multi-flip-angle (20, 40, 60°) method with B1 correction (dual-TR method, TR1 /TR2  = 30/130 ms), and T2 maps using a multi-echo (TE  = 9-189 ms; 12 ms intervals) method. T1 and T2 were quantified in the LN cortex and hilum. A Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare LN relaxometry values between patients and controls (significance, two sided, p < 0.05). Linear regression was applied to evaluate how LN relaxometry varied with age, BMI, and clinical indicators of disease. LN substructure relaxation times (mean ± standard deviation) in healthy controls were T1 cortex, 1435 ± 391 ms; T1 hilum, 714 ± 123 ms; T2 cortex, 102 ± 12 ms, and T2 hilum, 119 ± 21 ms. T1 of the LN cortex was significantly reduced in the contralateral axilla of BCRL patients compared with the axilla on the surgical side (p < 0.001) and compared with bilateral control values (p < 0.01). The LN cortex T1 asymmetry discriminated cases from controls (p = 0.004) in a multiple linear regression, accounting for age and BMI. Human 3.0 T T1 and T2 relaxation times in axillary LNs were quantified for the first time in vivo. Measured values are relevant for optimizing acquisition parameters in anatomical lymphatic imaging sequences, and can serve as a reference for novel functional and molecular LN imaging methods that require quantitative knowledge of LN relaxation times.

KEYWORDS:

breast cancer; cancer therapy responses; metastases; relaxometry

PMID:
30311705
PMCID:
PMC6263822
[Available on 2019-12-01]
DOI:
10.1002/nbm.4009

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center