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Eur J Appl Physiol. 2019 Jan;119(1):135-147. doi: 10.1007/s00421-018-4008-7. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Whole body cryotherapy, cold water immersion, or a placebo following resistance exercise: a case of mind over matter?

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London Sports Institute, Middlesex University, Allianz Park, Greenlands Lane, London, UK.
London Sports Institute, Middlesex University, Allianz Park, Greenlands Lane, London, UK.
Biomarker Research Group, Department of Natural Sciences, Middlesex University, London, UK.
School of Biomedical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.



The use of cryotherapy as a recovery intervention is prevalent amongst athletes. Performance of high volume, heavy load resistance exercise is known to result in disturbances of muscle function, perceptual responses and blood borne parameters. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of cold water immersion (CWI), whole body cryotherapy (WBC) or a placebo (PL) intervention on markers of recovery following an acute resistance training session.


24 resistance trained males were matched into a CWI (10 min at 10 °C), WBC (3- and 4 min at - 85 °C) or PL group before completing a lower body resistance training session. Perceptions of soreness and training stress, markers of muscle function, inflammation and efflux of intracellular proteins were assessed before, and up to 72 h post exercise.


The training session resulted in increased soreness, disturbances of muscle function, and increased inflammation and efflux of intracellular proteins. Although WBC attenuated soreness at 24 h, and positively influenced peak force at 48 h compared to CWI and PL, many of the remaining outcomes were trivial, unclear or favoured the PL condition. With the exception of CRP at 24 h, neither cryotherapy intervention attenuated the inflammatory response compared to PL.


There was some evidence to suggest that WBC is more effective than CWI at attenuating select perceptual and functional responses following resistance training. However, neither cryotherapy intervention was more effective than the placebo treatment at accelerating recovery. The implications of these findings should be carefully considered by individuals employing cryotherapy as a recovery strategy following heavy load resistance training.


Inflammation; Muscle damage; Muscle function; Resistance training


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