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Public Health. 2019 Feb;167:152-158. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2018.05.020. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Breakfast consumption in relation to lowered risk of psychological disorders among Iranian adults.

Author information

1
Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2
Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
3
Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address: esmaillzadeh@hlth.mui.ac.ir.
4
Psychosomatic Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
5
Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This study aims to find whether breakfast consumption is associated with human mental health.

STUDY DESIGN:

This cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the association between breakfast consumption and psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety, among Iranian adults.

METHODS:

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4378 general public adults in Isfahan, Iran. Breakfast consumption was assessed using a validated detailed dietary habits' questionnaire. Depression and anxiety were screened using an Iranian validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire. Psychological distress was examined by means of Iranian validated version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 items). Depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were defined based on standard criteria.

RESULTS:

Overall, 13.95% (n = 611) of study participants had anxiety, 28.62% (n = 1253) were depressive, and 23.18% (n = 1015) had psychological distress. After controlling for potential confounding variables, participants with every day breakfast consumption had lower odds for depression (odds ratio [OR]: 0.49, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.36-0.66) compared with those with the least frequent intake of breakfast, even after further adjustment for body mass index [BMI] (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34-0.63). Frequent breakfast consumption was inversely associated with anxiety before (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.37-0.76, P < 0.001) and after controlling for BMI (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.36-0.75, P < 0.001). The same findings were obtained for psychological distress (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.33-0.62, P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION:

We found an inverse association between breakfast consumption and depression, anxiety, and psychological distress among Iranian adults. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

KEYWORDS:

Anxiety; Breakfast; Depression; Eating; Mood; Psychological distress

PMID:
30309694
DOI:
10.1016/j.puhe.2018.05.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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