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AIDS Care. 2019 Feb;31(2):141-152. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2018.1533231. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Facilitators and barriers to HIV testing among Asians in the United States: a systematic review.

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a School of Social Work , University of Washington , Seattle , WA , USA.


Asians have the highest rate of undiagnosed HIV in the United States. Limited research on factors implicated in HIV testing among this population presents a barrier to monitoring and addressing HIV testing disparities. To examine predictors of HIV testing among Asians in the United States, a systematic search of articles published from January 1997 to December 2017 was conducted using four electronic databases, including Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Twenty-two articles were included according to predefined inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed, published in English, took place in the United States, included participants at least 18 years of age, reported data specifically on Asians or Asian subgroups, and assessed HIV testing. Included studies were assessed by methodological quality scoring. Individual-level factors such as HIV knowledge and HIV risk perceptions were commonly reported facilitators of HIV testing. Studies placed less attention on community, institutional, or structural level factors predicting HIV testing. Sorely warranted are high quality, longitudinal studies that examine HIV testing among Asians in the United States. Multi-level theoretical frameworks that examine HIV testing among Asians with attention to ethnic subgroups are needed to improve understanding of HIV testing and to develop targeted testing interventions.


Asian Americans; Asians; HIV prevention; HIV testing

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