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Exp Gerontol. 2018 Nov;113:150-162. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2018.10.006. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Beneficial alterations in body composition, physical performance, oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, and adipocytokines induced by long-term high-intensity interval training in an aged rat model.

Author information

1
School of Sport Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address: 12356@njnu.edu.cn.
2
School of Sport Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China.
3
Laboratory of Laser Sports Medicine, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.
4
Laboratory of Laser Sports Medicine, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address: liutcy@scnu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Sarcopenia is associated with loss of muscle mass and function as well as oxidative stress, chronic low-grade inflammatory status, and adipocytokine dysfunction. It has been reported that sarcopenia can be attenuated by exercise training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether long-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) protocols could differentially modulate changes in body composition, physical performance, inflammatory parameters, and adipocytokines in fat tissues and serum, as well as oxidative parameters and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in skeletal muscle tissue of aged rats. Middle-aged (18-month-old) female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 36) were subjected to 8 months of MICT (26-m MICT) or HIIT (26-m HIIT) treadmill training (45 min, 5 times per week), and the results were compared with those of age-matched sedentary controls (26-m SED); 8-month-old (8-m SED) and 18-month-old (18-m SED) rats served as aging sedentary controls. Body composition parameters; physical performance; serum and skeletal muscle oxidative stress parameters; levels of IGF-1, a serum and fat tissue inflammatory marker; adipocytokine (leptin, adiponectin) levels; and plasma glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters were analyzed among the five groups. The percent fat and body fat to lean mass ratio increased as a main effect with age, whereas 26-m HIIT but not 26-m MICT attenuated these alterations. The 26-m HIIT group showed a larger improvement in grip strength compared to that of 26-m MICT, with a similar increase in inclined plane performance, maximum running speed, and exhaustion over time as compared with the 26-m SED group. Notably, the 26-m HIIT group showed lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and higher IL-10 in serum compared with those of the 26-m SED and 26-m MICT groups. Both exercise protocols promoted increased skeletal muscle IGF-1 and decreased serum IGF-1 and adiponectin relative to those in the 26-m SED group, whereas only 26-m HIIT dampened the age-related decrease in plasma free fatty acids and increased serum leptin, along with providing lower fat tissue leptin as compared with that in the 26-m SED group. Moreover, the 26-m HIIT group showed lower serum and skeletal muscle malonylaldehyde and skeletal muscle 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels than those in the 26-m MICT group, albeit similar decreases in serum and skeletal muscle 4-hydroxynonenal and serum 8-OHdG and increases in skeletal muscle superoxide dismutase 2 activity. In conclusion, HIIT initiated late in life exhibited greater beneficial effects in ameliorating aged-related elevations in oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as dysfunction of circulating adipocytokine levels, than a volume-matched MICT program. HIIT may therefore contribute to improvements in body composition and physical performance changes associated with aging.

KEYWORDS:

Adipocytokine; Aging; High-intensity interval training; Inflammation; Oxidative stress

PMID:
30308288
DOI:
10.1016/j.exger.2018.10.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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