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PLoS One. 2018 Oct 10;13(10):e0202926. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202926. eCollection 2018.

The modular network structure of the mutational landscape of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

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Hematology Service, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.
Centro de Investigacion Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), Instituto Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, Valencia, Spain.
ProCURE, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Bellvitge Institute for Biomedical Research (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Department of Medical Pathology, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain.
Hematology Service, Hospital Arnau de Villanoba, Valencia, Spain.
Biostatistics Unit, IIS La Fe Valencia, Spain.
Functional Genomics Node, Spanish National Institute of Bioinformatics at CIPF, Valencia, Spain.
Bioinformatics of Rare Diseases (BIER), CIBER de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Valencia, Spain.
Clinical Bioinformatics Area, Fundación Progreso y Salud (FPS), CDCA, Hospital Virgen del Rocio, Sevilla, Spain.
Genetics Unit, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.


Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with the sequential accumulation of acquired genetic alterations. Although at diagnosis cytogenetic alterations are frequent in AML, roughly 50% of patients present an apparently normal karyotype (NK), leading to a highly heterogeneous prognosis. Due to this significant heterogeneity, it has been suggested that different molecular mechanisms may trigger the disease with diverse prognostic implications. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) of tumor-normal matched samples of de novo AML-NK patients lacking mutations in NPM1, CEBPA or FLT3-ITD to identify new gene mutations with potential prognostic and therapeutic relevance to patients with AML. Novel candidate-genes, together with others previously described, were targeted resequenced in an independent cohort of 100 de novo AML patients classified in the cytogenetic intermediate-risk (IR) category. A mean of 4.89 mutations per sample were detected in 73 genes, 35 of which were mutated in more than one patient. After a network enrichment analysis, we defined a single in silico model and established a set of seed-genes that may trigger leukemogenesis in patients with normal karyotype. The high heterogeneity of gene mutations observed in AML patients suggested that a specific alteration could not be as essential as the interaction of deregulated pathways.

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