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Trop Med Int Health. 2019 Jan;24(1):65-72. doi: 10.1111/tmi.13164. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Prevalence and social and health determinants of pre-diabetes and diabetes among adults in Laos: a cross-sectional national population-based survey, 2013.

Author information

1
Lao Tropical and Public Health Institution, Vientiane, Lao PDR.
2
Faculty of Postgraduate Studies, University of Health Sciences, Ministry of Health, Vientiane, Lao PDR.
3
ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhonpathom, Thailand.
4
Department of Research and Innovation, University of Limpopo, Turfloop, South Africa.
5
Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
6
Faculty of Pharmacy, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Diabetes is a major and fast-growing public health problem in Southeast Asia. We determined the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes and assessed the levels of awareness, treatment and control in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR).

METHODS:

A national cross-sectional study based on a stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in 2013. The sample comprised 2492 individuals aged 18-64 years (59.3% females; mean age 38.7 years, SD = 12.8) from Lao PDR. We followed the WHO STEPS method: step 1, questionnaire interview; step 2, anthropometric and Blood Pressure (BP) measurements; and step 3, biochemistry tests. Multinominal logistic regression was used to investigate the determinants of pre-diabetes and diabetes (fasting plasma glucose levels ≥ 7.0 mmol/L; or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs; or having a history of diagnosis of diabetes).

RESULTS:

5.7% of the population had diabetes, 4.7% of men and 6.4% of women, and 2.3% had pre-diabetes, 1.8% of men and 2.6% of women. Only 14.1% of the population sample indicated that they had ever their blood glucose measured by a health-care worker. This was higher in urban (20.9%) than rural (10.9%) dwellers (P < 0.001), and among female (16.6%) than male (10.5%) participants (P < 0.001). Among those with diabetes, 58.1% were aware of their diabetes status, 40.3% were taking treatment and 10.9% had controlled diabetes. The factor independently associated with impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) or pre-diabetes was central obesity (Adjusted Relative Risk Ratio-ARRR: 3.92, Confidence Interval-CI: 1.89, 8.14) but none of the other health (general body weight, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, substance use, hypertension and cholesterol) and sociodemographic (age, sex, education, employment status, marital status, ethno-linguistic group and residence status) variables. Factors independently associated with diabetes were older age (ARRR: 5.12, CI: 1.55, 10.20), central obesity (ARRR: 2.15, CI: 1.16, 4.00), low or moderate physical activity (ARRR: 0.75, CI: 0.60, 0.93), having hypertension (ARRR: 1.68, CI: 1.01, 2.83), and dyslipidaemia (ARRR: 1.75, CI: 1.08, 2.81).

CONCLUSION:

A public health response is needed in the form of integrated and comprehensive action targeting major non-communicable diseases in the country.

KEYWORDS:

Laos; cross-sectional study; diabetes mellitus; diabète sucré; prevalence; prévalence; étude transversale

PMID:
30303580
DOI:
10.1111/tmi.13164
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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