Send to

Choose Destination
J Biomed Opt. 2018 Oct;23(10):1-4. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.23.10.105002.

Holmium-YAG laser: impact of pulse energy and frequency on local fluid temperature in an in-vitro obstructed kidney calyx model.

Author information

The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Department of Urology, Columbus, Ohio, United States.


During laser lithotripsy, energy is transmitted to both the stone and the surrounding fluid. As the energy is delivered, the temperature will rise. Temperatures ≥60  °  C can cause protein denaturation. The objective of this study is to determine the time it takes from body temperature (37°C) to 60°C at various laser power settings. A Flexiva TracTip 200 optical fiber was submerged alongside a negative temperature coefficient-type thermistor in 4 mL of saline in a glass test tube. A Lumenis VersaPulse Powersuite 100-W holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser was activated at 0.2- to 1.5-J pulse energies, 6- to 50-Hz frequencies, and 2- to 22.5-W average power. Temperature readings were recorded every second from 37°C until 60°C. Time and heating rate were measured. The procedure was repeated three times for each setting. Average time from 37°C to 60°C for settings (1) 0.2 J/50 Hz, (2) 0.6 J/6 Hz, (3) 1 J/10 Hz, and (4) 1.5 J/10 Hz was 60.3, 172.7, 58, and 43.3 s, respectively. Time from 37°C to 60°C decreased as frequency increased for every given pulse energy. Average heating rate increased proportionally to power from 0.06°C/s at 2 W to 0.74°C/s at 22.5 W. During laser lithotripsy, there is a rapid increase in the temperature of its surrounding fluid and temperatures ≥60  °  C may be reached. This could have local tissue effects and some caution with higher power settings should be employed especially where irrigation is limited. Further studies incorporating irrigation and live tissue models may aid to further define the risks.


calculi; laser; lithotripsy; protein denaturation; temperature


Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center