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Sci Rep. 2018 Oct 8;8(1):14981. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-33317-x.

Melatonin inhibits attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder caused by atopic dermatitis-induced psychological stress in an NC/Nga atopic-like mouse model.

Author information

1
The K-herb Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34054, Republic of Korea. parkgunhyuk@gmail.com.
2
College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of Korea.
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Biomedical Science, Daegu Haany University, 290 Yugok-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 38610, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
5
Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Biomedical Science, Daegu Haany University, 290 Yugok-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 38610, Republic of Korea. ykim@dhu.ac.kr.

Abstract

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with the hallmark characteristics of pruritus, psychological stress, and sleep disturbance, all possibly associated with an increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the etiology of the possible association between AD and ADHD is still not well understood. 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene or corticosterone was used to evaluate the atopic symptom and its psychologic stress in the atopic mice model. Melatonin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor, urocortin, proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone, cAMP, cAMP response element-binding protein, dopamine and noradrenaline were analyzed spectrophotometrically, and the expression of dopamine beta-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase were measured by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. AD-related psychological stress caused an increase in the levels of dopamine beta-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, degradation of melatonin, hyper-activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and dysregulation of dopamine and noradrenaline levels (ADHD phenomena) in the locus coeruleus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of the AD mouse brain. Notably, melatonin administration inhibited the development of ADHD phenomena and their-related response in the mouse model. This study demonstrated that AD-related psychological stress increased catecholamine dysfunction and accelerated the development of psychiatric comorbidities, such as ADHD.

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