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J Clin Med. 2018 Oct 8;7(10). pii: E332. doi: 10.3390/jcm7100332.

Calf Circumference as a Screening Tool for Cognitive Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study (KFACS).

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, College of Medicine, East-West Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea. mijiak@khu.ac.kr.
2
Elderly Frailty Research Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea. minjj914@khu.ac.kr.
3
Elderly Frailty Research Center, Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea. jhyoo153@naver.com.
4
Elderly Frailty Research Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea. hanasdy@naver.com.
5
Elderly Frailty Research Center, Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea. chunwon62@naver.com.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine calf circumference in relation to cognitive frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on the first-year baseline data of 1559 adults aged 70⁻84 years enrolled in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. The final analysis included 1221 adults who were non-dependent in terms of instrumental activities of daily living, who underwent frailty and cognitive function assessments. Physical frailty was defined using the Fried Frailty Index. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score 1.5 standard deviations below the age-, sex- and education-matched norms on any of four cognitive-function tests. The prevalence of cognitive frailty was 2.8% for men and 3.8% for women. After adjusting for potential confounders, in comparison to the "physically robust without cognitive impairment" group, the estimates of increased odds ratios (ORs) for low calf circumference (<32 cm) were much greater in the prefrail with cognitive impairment (OR 4.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.02⁻10.61) and frail with cognitive impairment (OR 10.94, 95% CI: 2.87⁻41.68) groups in men but not in women. Low calf circumference was strongly related to cognitive frailty in men only, suggesting calf circumference can be used as an indicator of these outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

aging; calf circumference; cognitive frailty; cohort study; frailty

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