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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2018 Oct 31;10(43):37046-37056. doi: 10.1021/acsami.8b13281. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Paper-Derived Flexible 3D Interconnected Carbon Microfiber Networks with Controllable Pore Sizes for Supercapacitors.

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State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Institute of New Energy , China University of Petroleum (East China) , Qingdao 266580 , P. R. China.
International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA) , National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) , Namiki 1-1 , Tsukuba , Ibaraki 305-0044 , Japan.
School of Materials Science and Engineering , Hebei University of Technology , Tianjin 300130 , P. R. China.
National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences , Nanjing University , Nanjing 210093 , P. R. China.
Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shanghai 201210 , P. R. China.
School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty , Queensland University of Technology (QUT) , 2nd George Street , Brisbane QLD 4000 , Australia.


Heteroatom-doped three-dimensional (3D) carbon fiber networks have attracted immense interest because of their extensive applications in energy-storage devices. However, their practical production and usage remain a great challenge because of the costly and complex synthetic procedures. In this work, flexible B, N, and O heteroatom-doped 3D interconnected carbon microfiber networks (BNOCs) with controllable pore sizes and elemental contents were successfully synthesized via a facile one-step "chemical vapor etching and doping" method using cellulose-made paper, the most abundant and cost-effective biomass, as an original network-frame precursor. Under a rational design, the BNOCs exhibited interconnected microfiber-network structure as expressways for electron transport, spacious accessible surface area for charge accumulation, abundant mesopores and macropores for rapid inner-pore ion diffusion, and lots of functional groups for additional pseudocapacitance. Being applied as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors, BNOC-based supercapacitors not only revealed a high specific capacitance of 357 F g-1, a high capacitance retention of 150 F g-1 at 200 A g-1, a high energy density of 12.4 W h kg-1, and a maximum power density of 300.6 kW kg-1 with an aqueous electrolyte in two-electrode configuration but also exhibited a high specific capacitance of up to 242.4 F g-1 in an all-solid-state supercapacitor.


carbon microfiber networks; cellulose paper; controllable pore sizes; flexible supercapacitor; heteroatom doping


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