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J Carcinog. 2018 Sep 25;17:5. doi: 10.4103/jcar.JCar_7_18. eCollection 2018.

Role of aberrant glycosylation enzymes in oral cancer progression.

Author information

1
Department of Cancer Biology, Molecular Oncology Laboratory, The Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Carcinogenesis, a multistep process involves sequential changes during neoplastic transformation. The various hallmarks of cancer aid in cell survival, proliferation, and dissemination. Aberrant glycosylation, a recently defined hallmark of cancer, is influenced by glycosylation enzymes during carcinogenesis. Therefore, the present study measured α-2,3 and α-2,6 sialyltransferase (ST), sialidase, and α-L-fucosidase activity in patients with oral precancerous conditions (OPC) and oral cancer patients.

SUBJECTS:

The study enrolled 100 oral cancer patients, 50 patients with OPC, 100 healthy controls, and 46 posttreatment follow-ups of oral cancer patients. Blood and saliva were collected from all the participants.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Sialidase activity was measured by spectrofluorimetric method, α-2,3 and α-2,6 ST by ELISA using biotinylated lectins, and α-L-fucosidase by spectrophotometric method.

RESULTS:

The results depicted increased levels of sialidase, α-2,3 and α-2,6 ST, α-L-fucosidase in patients with OPC and oral cancer patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve indicated significant discriminatory efficacy in distinguishing controls and oral cancer patients for serum and salivary sialidase and α-L-fucosidase activity, and serum α-2,6 ST. Furthermore, serum and salivary α-L-fucosidase activity and serum sialidase activity significantly distinguished controls and patients with OPC. Serum and salivary sialidase, α-L-fucosidase, and serum α-2,3 ST activity were higher in patients with metastasis as compared to nonmetastatic patients. Higher values of serum α-L-fucosidase activity were significantly associated with low-overall survival.

CONCLUSION:

The increased levels of enzymes correlated with tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis in oral cancer patients. The alterations in glycosyltransferases/glycosidases thus support the view of glycosylation as a hallmark of cancer.

KEYWORDS:

Fucosidase; fucosyltransferase; glycosylation; glycosyltransferase; hallmark; oral cancer; saliva; sialidase; sialyltransferase

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