Send to

Choose Destination
J Midlife Health. 2018 Jul-Sep;9(3):117-122. doi: 10.4103/jmh.JMH_84_17.

Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Peri- and Post-menopausal Women in Slum Area of Mumbai, India.

Author information

Department of Orthopaedics, INHS Asvini, Colaba, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Department of Pathology, 151 Base Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India.



We conducted our study involving 1400 peri- and post-menopausal women who live in a slum area of Mumbai to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis, awareness about osteoporosis, education (knowledge regarding osteoporosis), treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.

Material and Methods:

A detailed medical, surgical, obstetrical & gynecological, menstrual, and drug history was recorded in a predesigned questionnaire designated for the study. Height and weight and body mass index were measured, physical activity level especially load bearing exercise was recorded, and amount of sunlight exposure per day was also recorded. Food intake was estimated using the 24 h dietary recall method and calcium and Vitamin D consumption pattern was assessed. We used calcaneum quantitative ultrasound to assess bone mineral density (BMD) for such large population.


The prevalence of low BMD was found in more than half of this population (81%). The mean age in Group I was found to be 36.50 ± 2.74 years as compared to 37.5 ± 3.44 years in Group II with low BMD, which was statistically significant (P = 0.02). The average age at menopause was 51.62 ± 5.72 years in Group I and 49.43 ± 4.52 years in Group II. The number of children and type of menopause has been found to be associated with low BMD in our study. Lack of physical exercise and low-calcium diet were significantly associated with low BMD.


Our study showed that there is a high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and Osteoporosis even in adult women who live in a slum area. The findings from the study also suggest the need for large community-based studies so that high-risk population can be picked up early and early interventions and other lifestyle changes can be instituted so that no delay in implementing state and national or international health policy to tackle this increasing global health problem. The public awareness is important, and strategies to identify and manage low BMD in the primary care setting needs to be established and implemented.


Bone mineral density; calcaneum ultrasound; calcium; menopause; osteoporosis; quantitative ultrasound

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center