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J Biomech. 2018 Nov 16;81:58-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2018.09.014. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Evaluation of pulmonary artery stenosis in congenital heart disease patients using functional diagnostic parameters: An in vitro study.

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Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:
The Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:


Congenital pulmonary artery (PA) stenosis is often associated with abnormal PA hemodynamics including increased pressure drop (Δp) and reduced asymmetric flow (Q), which may result in right ventricular dysfunction. We propose functional diagnostic parameters, pressure drop coefficient (CDP), energy loss (Eloss), and normalized energy loss (E¯loss) to characterize pulmonary hemodynamics, and evaluate their efficacy in delineating stenosis severity using in vitro experiments. Subject-specific test sections including the main PA (MPA) bifurcating into left and right PAs (LPA, RPA) with a discrete LPA stenosis were manufactured from cross-sectional imaging and 3D printing. Three clinically-relevant stenosis severities, 90% area stenosis (AS), 80% AS, and 70% AS, were evaluated at different cardiac outputs (COs). A benchtop flow loop simulating pulmonary hemodynamics was used to measure Q and Δp within the test sections. The experimental Δp-Q characteristics along with clinical data were used to obtain pathophysiologic conditions and compute the diagnostic parameters. The pathophysiologic QLPA decreased as the stenosis severity increased at a fixed CO. CDPLPA, Eloss,LPA (absolute), and E¯loss,LPA (absolute) increased with an increase in LPA stenosis severity at a fixed CO. Importantly, CDPLPA and E¯loss,LPA had reduced variability with CO, and distinct values for each LPA stenosis severity. Under variable CO, a) CDPLPA values were 14.5-21.0 (70% AS), 60.7- 2.2 (80% AS), ≥ 261.6 (90% AS), and b) E¯loss,LPA values (in mJ per QLPA) were -501.9 to -1023.8 (70% AS), -1247.6 to -1773.0 (80% AS), -1934.5 (90% AS). Hence, CDPLPA and E¯loss,LPA are expected to assess the true functional severity of PA stenosis.


Congenital heart disease; Functional diagnostic parameters; In vitro experiments; Pulmonary artery stenosis; Subject-specific

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