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Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;59:41-46. doi: 10.1016/j.cimid.2018.08.006. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Clostridioides difficile in the environment, food, animals and humans in southern Italy: Occurrence and genetic relatedness.

Author information

1
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Naples, Italy. Electronic address: Vincenza.romano@uniparthenope.it.
2
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Naples, Italy. Electronic address: vincenzo.pasquale@uniparthenope.it.
3
Normandie Université, UNIROUEN, EA2656, Department of Microbiology, Rouen University Hospital, F 76000, Rouen, France. Electronic address: ludovic.lemee@chu-rouen.fr.
4
Normandie Université, UNIROUEN, EA2656, Department of Microbiology, Rouen University Hospital, F 76000, Rouen, France. Electronic address: ielmeouc@bu.edu.
5
Normandie Université, UNIROUEN, EA2656, Department of Microbiology, Rouen University Hospital, F 76000, Rouen, France. Electronic address: Martine.Pestel@chu-rouen.fr.
6
Dipartimento di Ispezione degli Alimenti, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale per il Mezzogiorno di Portici, Portici, Naples, Italy. Electronic address: federico.capuano@cert.izsmportici.it.
7
Dipartimento di Scienze Motorie, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Naples, Italy; CEINGE-biotecnologie avanzate, Naples, Italy. Electronic address: pasqualina.buono@uniparthenope.it.
8
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Naples, Italy. Electronic address: stefano.dumontet@uniparthenope.it.

Abstract

One hundred and thirty-eight C. difficile isolates from different sources (66 from the environment, 36 from animals, 9 from food and 27 from humans) were ribotyped by capillary electrophoresis PCR ribotyping (CE-PCR). A multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was carried out on a sample subset. The most frequently isolated PCR ribotypes were 126 (15.9%), 078 (14.5%), 011/018 (11.6%), 014/020/077 (10.1%), and 010 (2.8%). In particular, strains of PCR ribotype 011/018 were isolated from human, raw milk and environmental samples. The hypervirulent PCR ribotype 027 was isolated from two human samples. The majority of the strains were toxigenic (34.1% showed the toxigenic profile A+B+CDT+ and 38.9% the profile A+B+CDT-). MLVA allowed to identify 4 clonal complexes of genetically related isolates: complex n. 1 grouped together human, environmental and food strains, whereas complex n. 3 included human and environmental isolates. The use of MLVA gave further evidence to the possible role of environment, animals and food as routes of transmission of C. difficile infections to human.

KEYWORDS:

Bovine raw milk; Clostridium difficile; MLVA; PCR ribotype 027; PCR ribotype 126; Ready-to-eat salad; Ribotyping; Shellfish; Toxigenic profile; Wastewater treatment plant

PMID:
30290886
DOI:
10.1016/j.cimid.2018.08.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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