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PLoS One. 2018 Oct 5;13(10):e0204946. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204946. eCollection 2018.

Predictors of enophthalmos among adult patients with pure orbital blowout fractures.

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Centre for Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of post-traumatic enophthalmos (PE) in relation to the internal orbital changes following pure orbital blowout fractures. The design was a 10-year retrospective cross-sectional study analysing 629 medical records and computed tomography (CT) data of patients with orbital fractures from January 2008 to January 2017. Demographic, etiology, co-morbidity and clinical characteristics were obtained from the medical records. Assessment of the PE, fracture site and size, intraorbital structures and muscle change were performed using the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) viewer software, OsiriX v5.8.2. Of the 629 patients with orbital fractures, 87 were pure orbital blowout fractures. Demographic pattern showed that males outnumbered females in the series, with male: female ratio of 5.7:1. The mean age was 37.2 ± 14.7 and the main etiology was motor vehicle accident. Orbital floor fracture was the most common fracture location (67.8%). The involvement of the posterior ledge and inferior orbital fissure showed statistical significant difference with PE (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.03). Binary logistic regression showed that after controlling for age, patients with fracture size of more than 150 mm2 had three times the odds of sustaining a PE, (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.01 (95% CI 1.17-7.92). Fracture size larger than 150 mm2 was a radiological predictor of PE. Additional research investigating further on the role of concurrent fracture of the posterior ledge and inferior orbital fissure is advocated.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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