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Curr Mol Med. 2018;18(4):252-259. doi: 10.2174/1566524018666181004113436.

Coding and Non-coding: Molecular Portrait of GIST and its Clinical Implication.

Author information

1
Medical Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Medicine, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russian Federation.
2
Institute of Pathology, University of Erlangen- Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
3
Laboratory of Epigenetics, Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Abstract

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite similar mutation pattern of activating mutations in KIT or PDGFRA receptors in 85% of cases, they demonstrate significantly heterogeneous clinical behaviour and pathological characteristics. This heterogeneity opens the question of the role of other factors and mechanisms of regulation in the development of GIST. Additional mutations in downstream effectors of GIST related signalling pathways or aberrant expression of non-coding RNAs may be additional contributing factors, the latter being increasingly recognized in carcinogenesis in general. Recently, a substantial progress has been achieved in understanding the functional roles of lncRNAs in GIST suggesting their potential employment as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in GIST. Moreover, some miRNAs have recently been found to be able to sensitize cells to imatinib, which could be an attractive option to overcome the resistance to the drug, which hampers the efficacy of GIST treatment. Therefore, the advantage can be taken of both coding and non-coding parts of the genome in order to significantly improve prognostication and help find personalized therapy for patients, depending on a subtype of GIST and personal characteristics.

KEYWORDS:

Gastrointestinal stromal tumour; imatinib resistance; lncRNA; miRNA; non-coding RNA; oncogenic mutations.

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