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Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2018 Sep 29;7:115. doi: 10.1186/s13756-018-0409-y. eCollection 2018.

Phenotypic analysis of antibiotic resistance and genotypic study of the vacA, cagA, iceA, oipA and babA genotypes of the Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from raw milk.

Author information

1
1Molecular Biology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2
2Molecular Biology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3
Young Researchers and Elites Club, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.

Abstract

Background:

Foods with animal origins and particularly milk play a considerable role in transmission of Helicobacter pylori. The current study was performed to assess phenotypic characters of antibiotic resistance and genotyping pattern of vacA, cagA, iceA, oipA and babA2 alleles amongst the H. pylori strains isolated from raw milk.

Methods:

Six-hundred and thirty raw milk samples were collected and cultured on Wilkins Chalgren anaerobe media. Antibiotic resistance and genotyping patterns were studied using disk diffusion and PCR, respectively.

Results:

Sixty-seven out of 630 (10.63%) raw milk samples were positive for H. pylori. Ovine raw milk (17.27%) samples had the highest prevalence of H. pylori, while camel (5.00%) had the lowest. H. pylori strains harbored the highest prevalence of resistance against ampicillin (82.08%), tetracycline (76.11%), amoxicillin (74.62%), metronidazole (65.67%) and erythromycin (53.73%). Prevalence of resistance against more than 10 types of antibiotics was 17.91%. VacA s1a (83.58%), m1a (80.59%), s2 (77.61%) and m2 (68.65%), cagA (73.13%) and babA2 (44.77%) were the most commonly detected genotypes. We found that S1am1a (56.71%), s2m1a (56.71%), s1 am2 (43.28%) and s2 m2 (43.28%) were the most commonly detected genotyping pattern. Frequency of cagA-, oipA- and babA2- genotypes were 26.86%, 62.68% and 55.22%, respectively. We found that S1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA-/babA2- (28.35%), m1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA-/babA2- (28.35%) and s2/cagA+/iceA1/oipA-/babA2- (26.86%) were the most commonly detected combined genotyping pattern.

Conclusions:

Simultaneous presence of vacA, cagA, iceA, oipA and babA2 genotypes in antibiotic resistant H. pylori strains indicates important public health issue regarding the consumption of raw milk. However, additional researches are required to find molecular genetic homology and other epidemiological aspects of H. pylori in milk.

KEYWORDS:

Antibiotic resistance; Genotyping; Helicobacter pylori; Raw milk

PMID:
30288255
PMCID:
PMC6162967
DOI:
10.1186/s13756-018-0409-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

The study was approved by the Ethical Council of Research of the Molecular Biology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (Consent Ref Number 97–23). Verification of this research project and the licenses related to sampling process were approved by the Prof. Reza Ranjbar (Approval Ref Number FHQC 2017/23).There was no consent for publication.The authors declare that they have no competing interests.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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