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J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2018 Sep 20. pii: S1684-1182(18)30183-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jmii.2018.09.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Increased age and proton pump inhibitors are associated with severe Clostridium difficile infections in children.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan; Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
2
Department of Pediatrics, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan; Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
3
Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
4
Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
5
Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address: lychang@ntu.edu.tw.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasing in children. We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics between CDI and colonization and to identify the risk factors for severe diseases of CDI in children.

METHOD:

We retrospectively reviewed 124 children (1-18 years old) from 2011 to 2018. CDI was defined as diarrhea (≥3 loose stool in the past 24 h) with confirmed toxigenic strain. Colonization was defined as presence of C. difficile without clinical symptoms. Severe diseases included ileus, acute kidney injury, gastrointestinal bleeding or mortality. Patients younger than 1 year old and coinfections with other enteric pathogens were excluded.

RESULTS:

Among 124 patients with C. difficile identified, 49 of them fulfilled CDI definition and 75 had C. difficile colonization. Children with CDI were more likely to present with watery (74% vs. 1%, p < 0.01) and mucoid stool (25% vs. 7%, p < 0.01) and occult blood in stool (67% vs. 33%, p < 0.01) than children with colonization. In CDI cases, elevated age-adjusted creatinine (18% vs. 0%, p = 0.03) and hyponatremia (134 mEq/L vs. 137 mEq/L, p = 0.04) were found. Also, they had more complicated diseases (27% vs. 0%, p < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, age older than 4 years (adjusted odds ratio: 5.83; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-32.27) and proton pump inhibitor use (PPI) (adjusted odds ratio: 7.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-49.07) were the independent factors for severe diseases.

CONCLUSIONS:

Watery diarrhea, mucoid stool and occult blood in stool could differentiate CDI from colonization. Patients with increased age and previous PPI use were the independent risk factors for severe diseases in children.

KEYWORDS:

CDI; Pediatric; Risk factor; Severe disease

PMID:
30287184
DOI:
10.1016/j.jmii.2018.09.002
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