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Magn Reson Med. 2019 Feb;81(2):1229-1236. doi: 10.1002/mrm.27410. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Multicenter reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping in a gadolinium phantom using MEDI+0 automatic zero referencing.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York.
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois.
3
Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.
4
Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
5
Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
6
Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
7
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
8
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To determine the reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping at multiple sites on clinical and preclinical scanners (1.5 T, 3 T, 7 T, and 9.4 T) from different vendors (Siemens, GE, Philips, and Bruker) for standardization of multicenter studies.

METHODS:

Seven phantoms distributed from the core site, each containing 5 compartments with gadolinium solutions with fixed concentrations between 0.625 mM and 10 mM. Multi-echo gradient echo scans were performed at 1.5 T, 3 T, 7 T, and 9.4 T on 12 clinical and 3 preclinical scanners. DICOM images from the scans were processed into quantitative susceptibility maps using the Laplacian boundary value (LBV) and MEDI+0 automatic uniform reference algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed by a physicist to determine agreement between results from all sites. Measurement reproducibility was assessed using regression, Bland-Altman plots, and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC).

RESULTS:

Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) from all scanners had similar, artifact-free visual appearance. Regression analysis showed a linear relationship between gadolinium concentrations and average QSM measurements for all phantoms (y = 350x - 0.0346, r2 >0.99). The SD of measurements increased almost linearly from 32 ppb to 230 ppb as the measured susceptibility increased from 0.26 ppm to 3.56 ppm. A Bland-Altman plot showed the bias, upper, and lower limits of agreement for all comparisons were -10, -210, and 200 ppb, respectively. The ICC was 0.991 with a 95% CI (0.973, 0.99).

CONCLUSIONS:

QSM shows excellent multicenter reproducibility for a large range of susceptibility values encountered in cranial and extra-cranial applications on a diverse set of scanner platforms.

KEYWORDS:

multicenter reproducibility; quantitative susceptibility mapping

PMID:
30284727
PMCID:
PMC6289704
[Available on 2020-02-01]
DOI:
10.1002/mrm.27410

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