Send to

Choose Destination
Arch Craniofac Surg. 2018 Sep;19(3):181-189. doi: 10.7181/acfs.2018.01879. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Effects of three-dimensionally printed polycaprolactone/β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold on osteogenic differentiation of adipose tissue- and bone marrow-derived stem cells.

Author information

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea.
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung, Korea.
Department of Prosthodontics, Dental Research Institute, Institute of Translational Dental Science, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea.
Department of Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.



Autogenous bone grafts have several limitations including donor-site problems and insufficient bone volume. To address these limitations, research on bone regeneration is being conducted actively. In this study, we investigate the effects of a three-dimensionally (3D) printed polycaprolactone (PCL)/tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffold on the osteogenic differentiation potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs).


We investigated the extent of osteogenic differentiation on the first and tenth day and fourth week after cell culture. Cytotoxicity of the 3D printed PCL/β-TCP scaffold was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay, prior to osteogenic differentiation analysis. ADSCs and BMSCs were divided into three groups: C, only cultured cells; M, cells cultured in the 3D printed PCL/β-TCP scaffold; D, cells cultured in the 3D printed PCL/β-TCP scaffold with a bone differentiation medium. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, von Kossa staining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blotting were performed for comparative analysis.


ALP assay and von Kossa staining revealed that group M had higher levels of osteogenic differentiation compared to group C. RT-PCR showed that gene expression was higher in group M than in group C, indicating that, compared to group C, osteogenic differentiation was more extensive in group M. Expression levels of proteins involved in ossification were higher in group M, as per the Western blotting results.


Osteogenic differentiation was increased in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) cultured in the 3D printed PCL/TCP scaffold compared to the control group. Osteogenic differentiation activity of MSCs cultured in the 3D printed PCL/TCP scaffold was lower than that of cells cultured on the scaffold in bone differentiation medium. Collectively, these results indicate that the 3D printed PCL/TCP scaffold promoted osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and may be widely used for bone tissue engineering.


Adipose tissue; Bone marrow; Cell differentiation; Mesenchymal stromal cells; Polycaprolactone; Stem cells; Tricalcium phosphate

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Publishing M2Community Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center