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Curr Diab Rep. 2018 Oct 2;18(11):122. doi: 10.1007/s11892-018-1072-7.

Can We Re-Engineer the Endocrine Pancreas?

Citro A1, Ott HC2,3,4.

Author information

1
Diabetes Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132, Milan, Italy.
2
Center for Regenerative Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 185 Cambridge Street, CPZN 4700, Boston, MA, 02114, USA. hott@partners.org.
3
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. hott@partners.org.
4
Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. hott@partners.org.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Engineering endocrine pancreatic tissue is an emerging topic in type 1 diabetes with the intent to overcome the current limitation of β cell transplantation. During islet isolation, the vascularized structure and surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) are completely disrupted. Once implanted, islets slowly engraft and mostly are lost for the initial avascular phase. This review discusses the main building blocks required to engineer the endocrine pancreas: (i) islet niche ECM, (ii) islet niche vascular network, and (iii) new available sources of endocrine cells.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Current approaches include the following: tissue engineering of endocrine grafts by seeding of native or synthetic ECM scaffolds with human islets, vascularization of native or synthetic ECM prior to implantation, vascular functionalization of ECM structures to enhance angiogenesis after implantation, generation of engineered animals as human organ donors, and embryonic and pluripotent stem cell-derived endocrine cells that may be encapsulated or genetically engineered to be immunotolerated. Substantial technological improvements have been made to regenerate or engineer endocrine pancreatic tissue; however, significant hurdles remain, and more research is needed to develop a technology to integrate all components of viable endocrine tissue for clinical application.

KEYWORDS:

Decellularization; Endocrine pancreas; Extracellular matrix; Pancreatic islet; Type 1 diabetes

PMID:
30280279
DOI:
10.1007/s11892-018-1072-7

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