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Environ Monit Assess. 2018 Oct 2;190(11):628. doi: 10.1007/s10661-018-6958-y.

Origin and distribution of nitrate in water well of settlement areas in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

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Department of Environmental Health, Politeknik Kesehatan Kemenkes Pontianak, Jl. 28 Oktober, Pontianak, 78241, Indonesia.
Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia.
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia.
Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia.


Pollution of nitrate in water wells in Yogyakarta City was reported to increase for two decades. This study aimed to describe nitrate contamination in the water wells of colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, previously described elsewhere. Nitrate and chloride content of 150 water samples from the wells of patients with CRC and IBD who were residing in Yogyakarta, Sleman, or Bantul districts were examined. Description of nitrate contamination was presented in the form of box plot charts and map. Kruskal-Wallis analysis was used to measure the difference of nitrate concentration in three areas of study. Comparisons of nitrate and chloride concentrations were used to determine the source of nitrate contamination in water well. Fisher's exact test was used to describe the relationship of well distance with the septic tank to nitrate concentration in water well. The wells in Yogyakarta City had the highest median nitrate content compared to Sleman and Bantul (Pā€‰=ā€‰0.001) with the median of 56.6, 13.1, and 7.7 for Yogyakarta, Sleman, and Bantul, respectively, and most tested samples exceed WHO safe drinking water standards. The spread of nitrate contamination has occurred in areas adjacent to Yogyakarta City compared to the previous report. The ratio of nitrate to chloride (1-8:1) suggested that the source of nitrate contamination in water wells in the study area came from feces due to inadequate on-site sanitation. The mapping showed nitrate contamination in water wells in Yogyakarta City, Sleman, and Bantul districts had spread according to urban development.


Chloride; Feces; Nitrate; Water well; Yogyakarta

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