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J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018 Dec;367(3):551-563. doi: 10.1124/jpet.118.252288. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Brain-Permeant and -Impermeant Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Synergize with the Opioid Analgesic Morphine to Suppress Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Nociception Without Enhancing Effects of Morphine on Gastrointestinal Transit.

Author information

1
Program in Neuroscience (R.A.S., V.I., A.G.H.), Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences (R.A.S., S.A.S., V.I., A.G.H.), and Gill Center for Biomolecular Science (A.G.H.), Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana; and Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (V.K.V., A.M.).
2
Program in Neuroscience (R.A.S., V.I., A.G.H.), Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences (R.A.S., S.A.S., V.I., A.G.H.), and Gill Center for Biomolecular Science (A.G.H.), Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana; and Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (V.K.V., A.M.) hohmanna@indiana.edu.

Abstract

Opioid-based therapies remain a mainstay for chronic pain management, but unwanted side effects limit therapeutic use. We compared efficacies of brain-permeant and -impermeant inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in suppressing neuropathic pain induced by the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel. Paclitaxel produced mechanical and cold allodynia without altering nestlet shredding or marble burying behaviors. We compared FAAH inhibitors that differ in their ability to penetrate the central nervous system for antiallodynic efficacy, pharmacological specificity, and synergism with the opioid analgesic morphine. (3'-(aminocarbonyl)[1,1'-biphenyl]- 3-yl)-cyclohexylcarbamate (URB597), a brain-permeant FAAH inhibitor, attenuated paclitaxel-induced allodynia via cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) mechanisms. URB937, a brain-impermeant FAAH inhibitor, suppressed paclitaxel-induced allodynia through a CB1 mechanism only. 5-[4-(4-cyano-1-butyn-1-yl)phenyl]-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-(1,1-dioxido-4-thiomorpholinyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM6545), a peripherally restricted CB1 antagonist, fully reversed the antiallodynic efficacy of N-cyclohexyl-carbamic acid, 3'-(aminocarbonyl)-6-hydroxy[1,1'- biphenyl]-3-yl ester (URB937) but only partially reversed that of URB597. Thus, URB937 suppressed paclitaxel-induced allodynia through a mechanism that was dependent upon peripheral CB1 receptor activation only. Antiallodynic effects of both FAAH inhibitors were reversed by N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251). Antiallodynic effects of URB597, but not URB937, were reversed by 6-iodo-2-methyl-1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl](4-methoxyphenyl)methanone (AM630). Isobolographic analysis revealed synergistic interactions between morphine and either URB597 or URB937 in reducing paclitaxel-induced allodynia. A leftward shift in the dose-response curve of morphine antinociception was observed when morphine was coadministered with either URB597 or URB937, consistent with morphine sparing. However, neither URB937 nor URB597 enhanced morphine-induced deficits in colonic transit. Thus, our findings suggest that FAAH inhibition may represent a therapeutic avenue to reduce the overall amount of opioid needed for treating neuropathic pain with potential to reduce unwanted side effects that accompany opioid administration.

PMID:
30275151
PMCID:
PMC6246979
[Available on 2019-12-01]
DOI:
10.1124/jpet.118.252288

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