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Mayo Clin Proc. 2018 Nov;93(11):1589-1599. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.05.035. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Incident Cardiovascular Disease Among Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Centro de Estudios en Medición de la Actividad Física, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia.
2
Physical Activity, Physical Education, Sport and Health Research Centre, Sports Science Department, School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
3
Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health and Exercise is Medicine Global Research and Collaboration Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
4
BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK; Centro de Investigación en Fisiología del Ejercicio, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile.
5
Institute for Positive Psychology and Education, Australian Catholic University, Sydney, Australia.
6
Laboratorio de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, el Deporte y la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address: antonio.garcia.h@usach.cl.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the association between ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

METHODS:

The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched from January 1, 2010, through July 31, 2017, for studies that met the following criteria: (1) prospective studies conducted in adults, (2) with outcome data on CVD incidence and (3) a measure of ideal CVH metrics.

RESULTS:

Twelve studies (210,443 adults) were included in this analysis. Compared with adults who met 0 to 2 of the ideal CVH metrics (high-risk individuals), a significantly lower hazard for CVD incidence was observed in those who had 3 to 4 points for the ideal CVH metrics (hazard ratio [HR]=0.53; 95% CI, 0.47-0.59) and 5 to 7 points (HR=0.28; 95% CI, 0.23-0.33). Weaker associations were observed in studies with older individuals, suggesting that there is a positive relationship between age and HR.

CONCLUSION:

Although meeting 5 to 7 metrics is associated with the lowest hazard for CVD incidence, meeting 3 to 4 metrics still offers an important protective effect for CVD. Therefore, a realistic goal in the general population in the short term could be to promote at least an intermediate ideal CVH profile (3 to 4 metrics).

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